At some point you have experienced this well I have. To prevent this from happening simply create multiple environment. In this article we will create a basic todo app ...
When I started learning Django, finding a tutorial that had everything I needed was pretty hard. Hopefully, this tutorial will help you get started!
Django, commonly referred to as 'The web framework for perfectionists with deadlines', was released in 2015 as open source and has since attracted a large community around it over the years. According to DjangoProject, it is a python web framework for developers looking for a faster way to build web applications faster, with less code and not worry about security. Django adopts Model-Template-View (MTV) pattern.
Why Consider Django?
If you ask most programmers why they choose to code in a certain language and not the other, the reasons are varied. Every programming language has an advantage or two over the other. Some like python is easy to master than others or depending on what you intend to achieve. It's more practical to learn java or Kotlin for Android developers as python for data scientists.I will give my personal opinion on why I recommend Django for any beginner in web development.
Django has taken into account security measures and offer developers features to prevent common attacks such as:
- Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) protection. CSRF or Sea Surf is a malicious attack on unsuspecting website users to execute illegitimate action taking advantage of the users authenticated status without their knowledge. The attackers take advantage of web servers without enough information about the request hence lack the ability to distinguish between a legitimate request from a forged one. Django offers an additional field with tokens put by the server on all POST requests so that the server only execute request if the tokens match
- Cross Site Scripting(XSS)
- SQL injection
- clickjacking, etc
Django has Detailed Documentation.It has been around since 2015 when it was released as open source and has attracted a community of developers around it. When you get stuck, there is a good chance someone else was too, so finding a solution is as easy as searching on the web and forums such as StackOverflow.
Django comes handy whenever speed is a factor. With so many built-in functionalities that could take more time to develop.
- Built-in Admin interface
- Authentication System
- Templates and layouts
- Object-Relational mapper (ORM).This is a database abstract API that let you create, retrieve, update and delete objects easily. It is compatible with MySQL, SQLite, Oracle, PostgreSQL.django allows you to use multiple databases by simply defining the databases you want to use in the projects settings file.
Make sure you have the following installed on your computer to follow-through. + You got Linux Os installed (Ubuntu, Debian) + Python 3+ + Django 2.0 + Virtualenv + pip
We will use
virtualenv in this article , If you want to use
pipenv,please refer to Pipenv.
I recommend Ubuntu or Mint if you are new to Linux. For this specific tutorial, I had mint installed because it's light and friendly for any beginner.
Django is a python framework so first ensure you have python installed. The default installed in my OS(at the time of writing this article) is 2.7. Check the version of python installed by typing the following command into your shell:
python --version python -V // mind the capital python2 -V
If you run either of the codes above, your output should look something like this
outputs Python 2.7.12
To check for Python3
python3 -V python3 --version
The above outputs
In this tutorial, we are using python 3.5 and higher. Type the command below to check which version 3 is installed
You should see something close to this:
Python 3.5.2 (default, Nov 23 2017, 16:37:01) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609] on linux Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
At this point, you can type CTRL+D to exit the interactive shell for now. Installing Python If you do not have python installed, use this command:
sudo apt-get install python3.5
installing Python 3.6
to install the latest version 3.6 check this tutorial
Let’s dive right in What you will learn
- Create a virtual environment a name it
- Create a sample project called
- Create a demo Django app called
- Finally, configure the
Setting up Virtual Environment
We could just create a Django application on our computer, but to control the packages unique for the application we will use Virtual Enviroment. Virtual Environment is useful when you want to create isolated environments, each running their own versions of packages. We can even create virtual environments with various python versions! sounds cool. For this tutorial, I am going to use virtualenv.
We can install virtualenv using python’s package manager pip
sudo pip install virtualenv //installing virtualenv using pip
What is pip
Pip is a useful python package tool that installs, updates, and remove Python packages/libraries.Pip come installed with python 2.7+ downloaded from python website.
sudo apt get virtualenv
You should get something like this if
virtualenv< >is already installed as in my case:
cindy@cindy-Veriton-M290 ~/Desktop $ pip install virtualenv Requirement already satisfied: virtualenv in /home/cindy/.local/lib/python2.7/site-packages
Create and name virtualenv
Once you have successfully installed virtualenv, next we create the virtualenv test in the shell. I like creating my project in documents Folder. So right-click and choose open a terminal here option. Once you open the terminal, type:
virtualenv -p python3 test
test is just a name, you could give it any name. The -p points to the python version you want to use, in the above case python 3
Now that we have created our virtualenv test, we need to use it to install Django and other packages we will need. In order to use our virtualenv, we must activate it. change directory to your virtual environment using:
Then once you are inside the virtualenv directory, activate it as shown below:
By now you should see your virtualenv in brackets
Below is a sample from my console:
(test) cindy@cindy-Veriton-M290 ~/test $
To check packages installed in the virtualenv you just created run:
virtualenv is up and running, it is time to install Django. The version of Django at the time of writing this article is 2.0.2.Run:
pip install Django
To check for the packages installed run:
your console should list the installed packages
(test) cindy@cindy-Veriton-M290 ~/test $ pip freeze Django==2.0.2 pytz==2018.3
How to specify Django Version
To specify django version,use:
pip install django==
Creating Django Project
Django is successfully installed so let's create our project Structure. Type this in your console:
django-admin startproject HelloDjango
startproject command will create a structure similar to the one below:
HelloDjango/ manage.py HelloDjango/ __init__.py settings.py urls.py wsgi.py
The structure may seem confusing at a glance but I will try to explain everything.
- The outer
HelloDjangois the container holding our project. It's okay to change the name to something else. I like using
srcbecause it's more intuitive.
- The inner
HelloDjangocontains your site's configurations. I Highly recommend you leave it as it is, at least for now.
__init__.pyis an empty file that identifies the directory as a python module
settings.pyThis is a configuration file for your site. It tells Django where to find static files, allows you to choose your language, add apps created in order to activate them, specify the database, etc.This is a good place to put system-wide configurations.
urls.pyThis file is responsible for mapping incoming request to their respective responses
manage.pyThis file enables you to run various commands to administer your site.
Change to the project directory.
The project directory is the outer HelloDjango containing manage.py file. If you changed its name to src, then change directory to src.
Make Migrations and Run Test Server
We need to create a database and Django comes with SQLite.You are free to use any other databases of your choice. But for this tutorial, we will use the SQLite. Change directory to the project root and make migrations by typing the command:
python manage.py makemigrations python manage.py migrate
Test development server
To test if your project is working well, go to your project's root directory then type this :
python manage.py runserver
You should see something like this:
Performing system checks... System check identified no issues (0 silenced). February 28, 2018 - 18:58:33 Django version 2.0.2, using settings Starting development server at http://127.0.0.1:8000/ Quit the server with CONTROL-C.
When you go to http://127.0.0.1:8000/,If Django was successfully installed you should get a success message "congratulations"
Create a Superuser
To Interact with the admin site, we must create a SuperUser.A superuser has admin privileges
python manage.py createsuperuser
Then input the credentials. Below is a snippet
Username: laughing-blog Email address: 'email Adress' Password: Password (again):
Run the server and navigate to
http://127.0.0.1:8000/admin on the browser.Log in using superuser credentials you created above
python manage.py runserver
For the project to work properly, we need to make some changes in
First, we going to change the
Templates DIR to look like this
'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'templates')],
This simply tells Django to look for the templates folder in the project's root directory.
Django allows us to have static files tied to a particular app and it is already defined in the setting.py as
STATIC_URL = '/static/'.
In addition, we want to tell Django where to look for static files that are not tied to any particular app by defining
STATICFILES_DIRS = [ os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static"), ]
Change time zone
Finally,let's change our timezone.I come from Nairobi so my time zone is Africa/Nairobi.Check yours on: wikipedia
LANGUAGE_CODE = 'en-us' TIME_ZONE = 'Africa/Nairobi'
Creating an App
Apps are small components that are used to build projects. Usually, they perform a specific task and can be reused in various projects. Create an app that manages user accounts and names it accounts by running the following command.
python manage.py startapp accounts //this app is called accounts
The app creates sub-modules such as
models.py contain classes mapped to database tables
views.py Contain the logic of your application. A python function(s) that take a web request ad return response
__init__.py An empty file that simply tells Django to treat the directory as a python module
accounts/ __init__.py admin.py apps.py migrations/ __init__.py models.py tests.py views.py
To use the app you have just created, activate it by adding it to
INSTALLED_APPS = [ 'django.contrib.admin', 'django.contrib.auth', 'django.contrib.contenttypes', 'django.contrib.sessions', 'django.contrib.messages', 'django.contrib.staticfiles', 'accounts', ]
This can be overwhelming and so did awesome to reach this far. Most of the naming used are simply conventional and not a requirement. The installation and configurations above are ideal for large projects In a very small project, for example, urls.py can be included in any importable python module or views do not have to live inside views.py